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Author Topic: A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is...  (Read 124700 times)

Offline Bison66

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3 unforgivable ways white women profited from slavery



QUOTE
...a new book by the historian, Stephanie E. Jones-Rogers has drawn on a variety of sources “to show that slave-owning women were sophisticated economic actors who directly engaged in and benefited from the South’s slave market.”

According to an article on Slate, Jones-Rogers, in the book – They Were Her Property: White Women as Slave Owners in the American South – shunned the letters and diaries of elite white women that were the basis of earlier histories and rather looked at the testimony of the people who had been enslaved...
UNQUOTE

My great-grandmother - and shero of our book CLANDESTINE - was "owned" by a woman, who received 10-year-old Mariah as a wedding gift in 1848 at the Ducros sugar plantation in Terrebonne, LA.

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Offline Bison66

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Prince Georges County, Maryland.

Good article with HBCU shout outs, too.

One error in the headline (I've added the missing word in red):


The Struggle for Black Education, Then and Now
With a focus on Prince George’s County, Maryland, now the wealthiest Black county in the USA


QUOTE
As early as 1861, as Union troops advanced on Confederate armies, charitable organizations, based in New England, responded to the fervent appeals of Edward L. Pierce, also of Massachusetts, and others to contribute funds to provide for the basic needs of liberated, but destitute freedmen.

https://portofharlem.net/snippets22/may182022-black-education.html

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« Last Edit: May 12, 2022, 04:14:46 PM by Bison66 »

Offline Bison66

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More details on the history of Prince Georges education for African people after the US Civil War.

QUOTE

Clinton Grove Elementary School began life in 1868 as the Robeystown School No. 1, District 9.  It was the first school established for the African-American community in the Surrattsville-Clinton area. It was established to provide education to the children of freed slaves by the Freedmen's Bureau.  This was done at a time when there was not strong support for the education on these children.

     The construction of the school began in August of 1867, after the land was "given" to the Freedmen by Townley B. Robey, a white farmer.  Freedmen was suppose to provide money for the school's support.  In actuality, the land was purchased by the Freedmen's Bureau and deemed to the trustees.  Two hundred dollars was provided for the construction of the school and the finished building measured 18 feet by 32 feet.  It was located on the property now occupied by the American Legion Hall on Piscataway Road.

https://schools.pgcps.org/Clinton-Grove/Archive_Clinton-Grove/CGES-History/

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Offline Bison66

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The Consequences of USCT Soldiering

https://www.aaihs.org/the-consequences-of-usct-soldiering/

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Offline Bison66

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Excellent article:

The Reconstruction Origins of Black Wall Street



QUOTE
...Before the area we know as Oklahoma received statehood in 1907, the region was known as Indian Territory. This unorganized territory served as home to the Five Civilized Tribes—the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole nations—after their forced exodus from the southeast in the 1830s and reservation tribes originally from the far West. Members of all Five Tribes were chattel slaveholders and brought enslaved people with them during removal. Torn between the United States and the Confederacy during the Civil War, the Five Tribes experienced their own internal civil wars as their members fought for both sides. In the wake of the United States’ total victory in 1865, the federal government required the Five Tribes to sign new treaties in 1866, known as the Reconstruction Treaties. These treaties required significant land cessions in punishment for the Tribes’ support of the Confederacy, despite the fact that thousands of members of the tribes had fought in the Union army, as well as the abolition of slavery and, most importantly, the inclusion of their new freedpeople as tribal citizens.

These demands put Indian Territory into the vanguard of Reconstruction policy. Giving former slaves full and equal citizenship rights was not at the time a Reconstruction requirement for former Confederate states in the South. In receiving citizenship rights in their respective tribes through the Reconstruction treaties, hundreds of freedpeople gained access to tribal lands held in common. Land policy in the Cherokee, Creek, and Seminole nations allowed citizens—Native and Black—to create their own property by improving land communally owned held by each Nation.

Most commonly in the Creek and Seminole nations, newly freed people built all-Black towns for their mutual physical and economic security and gained some representation in Creek and Seminole tribal governments.  This was the beginning of African American communities, like Oklahoma’s Greenwood District, that would remain prosperous into the early twentieth century. Access to land in the public domain gave freedpeople the economic boost they needed. As historian Daniel F. Littlefield Jr. explains, “in the succeeding thirty years, they developed a lifestyle that most blacks in the South would have envied.”

https://www.aaihs.org/the-reconstruction-origins-of-black-wall-street/

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Offline Bison66

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Never heard or read about this before...


John Berry Meachum was a businessman, a founder of the oldest black church in Missouri, and a pioneer in the education of blacks in that state. Meachum was born a slave in Goochland County, Virginia on May 3, 1789.

WHEN MISSOURI BANNED EDUCATION FOR ALL BLACKS, THIS MAN RESPONDED WITH A “FLOATING FREEDOM SCHOOL”

QUOTE

Through the First African Baptist Church, Meachum and Peck began offering religious and secular education to free and enslaved black St. Louisans. Meachum’s school attracted up to 300 pupils and did not charge tuition to those who could not afford it. Although white Missourians had originally supported schooling for blacks as a means for strengthening Christianity, racial tensions caused many of them to now see educated blacks as a threat to slavery. Around the time Meachum opened his school, St. Louis enacted an ordinance banning the education of free blacks. This ordinance was only sporadically enforced, but police did force Meachum to temporarily disband the school. In 1847, Missouri banned all education for blacks. Meachum responded by equipping a steamboat with a library, desks, and chairs and opened the “Floating Freedom School” on the Mississippi River beyond the reach of Missouri officials.

Meachum and his wife also facilitated the Underground Railroad through their home and their church. Meachum’s carpentry business was successful enough for him to purchase and free twenty slaves. Meachum trained each in carpentry and other trades so that they could support themselves.  Nearly every individual freed repaid Meachum allowing him to free others.

Despite his work to free Missouri slaves and educate blacks, Meachum’s views on education and black equality anticipated those of Booker T. Washington a half century later: black people needed practical, hands-on education so that when freedom came, the race would be ready to utilize that freedom. Meachum illustrated this view in “An Address to All of the Colored Citizens of the United States,” a pamphlet printed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1846.

Meachum left a lasting impact on St. Louis. His school educated hundreds of free blacks and slaves including James Milton Turner who after the Civil War would found Lincoln Institute, the first school of higher education for blacks in Missouri. The work of Meachum and his wife on the Underground Railroad is now commemorated at the Mary Meachum Crossing in St. Louis, where the two led slaves across the Mississippi River to freedom in Illinois. The First African Baptist Church (now the First Baptist Church) continues to operate in St. Louis. John Berry Meachum died at his pulpit on February 19, 1854.

https://blackthen.com/when-missouri-banned-education-for-all-black-this-man-responded-with-a-floating-freedom-school/

Very impressive!!!

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Offline Bison66

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And Mrs. Mary Meachum (SEE PRIOR POST) is getting her due, also...

QUOTE
On the night of May 21, 1855, in the area that is now part of the Mississippi Greenway:Riverfront Trail north of the Merchant’s bridge, Mary Meachum attempted to help a small group of enslaved people cross the Mississippi River to Illinois where slavery was outlawed. However, enslavers and law enforcement officials caught at least five of the enslaved people and arrested Mary for her participation in the plot. She was charged in criminal court for helping the “fugitives” escape. In 2001, the National Park Service recognized the site as part of the Underground Railroad Network to Freedom.

MORE HERE....including an excellent video DETAILING the attempted escape organized by Mrs. Beachum. 

Was she punished for it....?
https://greatriversgreenway.org/mary-meachum/

Powerful AND COURAGEOUS couple!!!!


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Offline Bison66

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Lincoln gets way too much credit for freeing enslaved Black people
Historian: Black people were not given freedom; they forced it



QUOTE
Abraham Lincoln did not free the enslaved. The enslaved freed themselves. For decades, historians have argued for the agency of Black Americans in securing their own liberation during the Civil War. But time and time again, Lincoln is touted by his most well-known monikers, The Great Emancipator or Savior of the Union. His entire presidential legacy is often summarized in an easy one-liner: “Lincoln freed the slaves.”

Lincoln is perhaps one of the few presidents who require constant revisiting. This Juneteenth, I’m honored to revisit Lincoln’s personal and political legacy, particularly focusing on how he faced the deadliest and most consequential war in U.S. history. Equally important, it emphasizes the role of Black leaders, abolitionists, and political activists who convinced Lincoln to transform the nation. Their voices and contributions to emancipation and equality have resonance today.

https://www.bostonglobe.com/2022/06/16/opinion/lincoln-gets-way-too-much-credit-freeing-enslaved-black-people/

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« Last Edit: June 21, 2022, 02:46:14 AM by Bison66 »

Offline Bison66

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Honorable Kenneth B. Morris, Jr., great-grandson of Dr. Frederick Douglass, recalls childhood memories of Highland Beach



QUOTE
My great, great grandfather, Charles Remond Douglass, named after the abolitionist Charles Lenox Remond, was the third and youngest son of Frederick Douglass and Anna Murray Douglass, born in 1844.

When Frederick Douglass began to assemble the 54th Massachusetts Regiment, he was proud to say that Charles was his first African American recruit to join-up to fight against the Confederacy during the Civil War in what had now become a struggle to end slavery. Having trained for battle, however, illness prevented Charles from participating in the assault on Fort Wagner on Morris Island, near Charleston Harbor and Fort Sumter, South Carolina.

[...]

My great-grandmother, Fannie Howard Douglass, or Grandmere as we called her, would sit down, put me on her knee, and with dramatic flair tell me about the first time she met Frederick Douglass as a little girl in Atlanta, Georgia.

Her father, David T. Howard, was born a slave and became one of the nation’s first black millionaires, owning and operating a mortuary business. When Frederick visited Atlanta, my great-great-grandfather Howard would pick him up at the train station in the fanciest horse-drawn carriage in town. Their very tall visitor, with a shock of white hair, made quite an impression on young Fannie.

From that day forward she began referring to him as “The Man with the Big White Hair” and did so until her death at the age of 103.

https://thelionofanacostia.wordpress.com/2018/04/05/kenneth-bailey-morris-grandson-of-dr-frederick-douglass-recalls-childhood-memories-of-highland-beach/?fbclid=IwAR3zgDVYuVF1bRgXngZP1jGaEuFGoEhcU8GPUPKBOCsT5AscUYW-MuYWMKE

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Offline Bison66

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Addendum to the above post:


Highland Beach founder Major Charles R. Douglass (1844–1921), the youngest son of Frederick Douglass. Photo courtesy of Highland Beach Historical Collection.


QUOTE
Highland Beach was in many respects Charles Douglass’s Field of Dreams. He appears to have been motivated by the same message that was so central to the movie: “Build it and they will come.” Until well into the twentieth century (1948) there were often restrictive covenants on deeds that prevented the sale of real estate to blacks and other minorities. Charles Douglass opened up an opportunity for blacks to freely purchase beach property in the heart of the burgeoning Annapolis Neck Region of Anne Arundel County, with convenient access from both Washington and Baltimore.

Book: Highland Beach on the Chesapeake Bay

Margo Pinson, one of the co-authors of the book, worked with me at Howard. I had no idea of her connection to The Beach. I didn't move in those bougie circles.

https://whatsupmag.com/news/highland-beach-chesapeake-bay-maryland-s-first-african-american-incorporated-town/

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« Last Edit: June 21, 2022, 11:04:52 PM by Bison66 »

Offline Bison66

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Y'all,

It was two O-dan posters, who were the first, years ago, to educate me about FORT MOSE (mo-ZAY) and the southbound "Underground Railroad."
My wife and I acknowledged them in our book, and I thank you AGAIN.

Since then, I have shared the information many times and included the determination and courage of the Africans and "Indians" in Florida in my historical novel, CLANDESTINE. https://amzn.to/2QM2LFX

This illustration and caption are included in our book:

Battle of Fort Mose (June 14, 1740) as depicted by an artist
Spanish, Indian and Free Black Forces Retake Fort Mose,from the English
Image Courtesy of the Florida National Guard
Thanks to https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/fort-mose-florida/

At this link, a friend, who is a descendant of the African fighters at African Fort in Apalachacola, FL reads from a young adult book about Fort Mose.
Great details!!!!
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4W-VW-AHJ_c3TabOc0VU6nuwhG1frnGY

In Part 6 (each Part is quite short), Brother Pompey Fixio speaks of the 1739 Stono Rebellion in S. Carolina, which is featured on the first page of Chapter One of CLANDESTINE.


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« Last Edit: June 22, 2022, 11:13:35 PM by Bison66 »

Offline Bison66

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A short interview with the author of the book about Fort Mose:


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Offline Bison66

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1946 Columbia (White) Race Riot



Only recently discovered this murderous event.

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Offline Bison66

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I thought I might have posted this before, but don't see it.

This incisive article was written mostly by newly-freed political prisoner Sundiata Acoli. Thanks again, if you signed the petition I shared!!

He was a member of the Black Panther Party and the Black Liberation Army, and allegedly helped Assata Shakur to escape custody.

Here, he gives an insider's view of the the successes and failures of the Black Panther Party:


https://www.slideshare.net/silvergoat00/the-black-panther-party-48174513?next_slideshow=48174513

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Offline Bison66

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Y'all know that I've become fascinated with the African and Native American military and social alliance that created
the "Seminoles."

A "recent" (2001) archaeological discovery may shed new light on the daily living of what is suspected to be the largest
 African/Black community in pre-Seminole War Florida.

QUOTE
Fortyfive minutes west of Walt Disney's makebelieve history, archaeologists dig for real artifacts. Hunched over a shallow,
square excavation, they search for Peliklakaha, the largest Black Seminole village known to historians, a place where different
 cultures joined in a fight for freedom more than 200 years ago. Until now, say University of Florida archaeologists,
Peliklakaha existed only in the writings of military leaders and a painting commissioned by the U.S. general who had burned
 it down. Archaeologists hope to unearth clues that documents can't provide, secrets about the life of a hidden people.
They hope Peliklakaha will reveal whether the inhabitants developed a unique lifestyle with their new status as free people
in Florida. "The story of the Black Seminoles is a tremendous story about a successful effort by slaves gaining their freedom
before the Civil War," said Delray Beach archaeologist Bill Steele, who discovered the site in 1993. "That's why Peliklakaha
is so significant." The dig could establish a new focus in archaeology on cultures that combine African and Native American
influences, said Terry Weik, the UF graduate student heading the excavation. It could also bolster the Black Seminoles' lawsuit
that seeks a share of the $56 million the United States government paid the Seminoles for reparations. To win their suit against
the U.S. government, the Black Seminoles must prove they owned land in Florida. The story of the Black Seminoles is complex and
controversial. Often it's misunderstood. The Seminoles themselves were a distillation of as many as 36 tribes. Osceola, the bold
and dashing Seminole leader for whom the Florida State University mascot was named, was half Scottish and half Creek Indian, and
married a Black Seminole.

[...]

Blacks were in Florida before the Seminoles. In the late 1600s, African slaves who escaped Carolina plantations and dodged slave
 hunters through dangerous Indian country gained freedom by crossing the St. Mary's River, an international border that divided
Spanish and British colonial territory. This was the first Underground Railroad. So many fled here that, in 1693, the Spanish
settlement at St. Augustine began freeing the runaway slaves if they agreed to convert to Catholicism and protect the northern
border from the British, according to Jane Landers, author of Black Society in Spanish Florida. By 1738, these former slaves
formed the first free black community in North America  Gracia Real de Santo Teresa de Mose  better known as Fort Mose. Soon,
the Indians followed. They were the remnants of the most resistant tribes, the Creek, Hitichi, Yamasee and Miccosukee, Indians
who had been fighting the Europeans for centuries. Together they became known as the Seminoles.

chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/https://www.jupiter.fl.us/DocumentCenter/View/322/The-Forgotten-Seminoles

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« Last Edit: August 12, 2022, 05:29:31 PM by Bison66 »

 

 

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