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Author Topic: "...a nation to which Europe owes everything, for Egypt is responsible for..."  (Read 96114 times)

Offline Bison66

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This article contains some interesting information, although quite a bit is speculative.

Beja people are one of the living descendants of Ancient Egypt



QUOTE
The Beja people of north east Sudan and southern Egypt are living descendants of Ancient Egyptians. If you ever wondered from all the controversy what the Ancient Egyptians look like take a good look. They are a true representation of ancient Egyptians.
[...]
Their language is Ta Bedawi / Bedawiye and although Cus**tic is considered the origin of the Semitic Ge’ez language and those that derived from Ge’ez such as Tigre, Tigrinya, and Amharic.

The Beja may also be a link to the Kus**te expansion into Mesopotamia as it was Henry Rawlinson who deciphered cuneiform using Ta Bedawi not a Semitic language.

It was Rawlinson who said the language of the Kus**tes spanned from West Africa through Western Asia to India.

Important to note that ancient Greeks often referred to Babylonians as Ethiopians. So the link between African Semitic and Western Asian Semitic most likely involves the Beja and their Kus**tic language influences.

This migration of the Beja may explain why there is correlation between Western Asian and Horn of Africa languages to Kush-Kemetic languages.



https://theafricanhistory.com/1017


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Offline Bison66

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We previously spoke about the Great Wall of Benin here:  https://onnidan1.com/forum/index.php?topic=68491.msg1116624#msg1116624

Here is another short article on this amazing massive construction:


QUOTE
The Walls (Iya) of the Benin Kingdom covered 6,500 square kilometres and extended for some 16,000 kilometres connecting more than 500 settlement boundaries. They were all dug by the Edo people around the year 1055.
In all, they were four times longer than the Great Wall of China and consumed a hundred times more material than the Great Pyramid of Giza. They took an estimated 150 million hours of digging to construct, and are perhaps the "largest single archaeological phenomenon on earth".
The Benin Walls were destroyed by the British during the invasion of 1897. #HistoryVille
UNQUOTE

And it is included in this good video of ancient African wonders:


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Offline Bison66

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b.o.t.

Offline Bison66

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This article relates to a time period considerably after the glorious millennia of Kemet, but it fits the theme of this thread...

This "find" is in current-day Mali.


Medieval Africans Had a Unique Process for Purifying Gold With Glass

And scientists in Illinois have recreated it.


The coin mold fragments found in Tadmekka, Mali.
PHOTOGRAPH BY CLARE BRITT, COURTESY THE BLOCK MUSEUM OF ART

QUOTE
“This is the first time in the archaeological record that we saw glass being used to be able to refine gold,” says Marc Walton, codirector of the Center for Scientific Studies in the Arts, a collaboration between Northwestern University and the Art Institute of Chicago. “The glass appeared to be material that was [actually] recycled glass materials … so it really shows the industriousness and creativity of the craftsmen, who understood the properties of gold and glass enough to [use them for] this process of refining gold.” The recycled glass materials were remnants of broken vessels. Tadmekka was a town right in the middle of the trans-Saharan caravan route, so Nixon uncovered several types of material culture that had to do with trade, namely molds for “bald dinar,” or coins that hadn’t been stamped with the name of a mint (or a 10th-century equivalent of one).

https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/medieval-african-gold?utm_medium=atlas-page&utm_source=facebook&fbclid=IwAR3eNXRpbKilz0rXW1BJ3GsnVL87_4qQ7NawU6UGER1hSudrYR0VGqq0zgU

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« Last Edit: January 27, 2021, 12:44:24 AM by Bison66 »

Offline Bison66

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We've highlighted this Sister previously.



If anyone attends this webinar, please share some highlights.  I have a conflicting obligation.

https://www.eventbrite.com/e/the-origins-of-ancient-kush-tickets-135452824043?ref=estw&fbclid=IwAR1WOIDl1X497VMgK5A1zQ-2v48ClpTfvHZoPFLbwXM0nq8YzbdqwR6Zsxs

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  90259

Offline Bison66

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"A beer for my friend, please!"

Egypt: Archaeologists unearth ancient beer factory in Abydos



QUOTE
Mostafa Waziri, secretary general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, said the factory was found in Abydos, an ancient burial ground located in the desert west of the Nile River, over 450 kilometers (280 miles) south of Cairo.

He said the factory apparently dates back to the region of King Narmer, who is widely known for his unification of ancient Egypt at the beginning of the First Dynastic Period (3150 B.C.- 2613 B.C.).
https://news.yahoo.com/egypt-archaeologists-unearth-ancient-beer-205217989.html

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Offline Bison66

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Artificial intelligence software used to recreate the appearance of key figures in Ancient Kemet...

Dutch photographer reveals modern image of Egyptian King Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti


QUOTE
Using artificial intelligence, Dutch photographer Bas Uterwijk released on Friday modern images of the Egyptian King Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) and Queen Nefertiti.

The pictures, which Uterwijk posted on his Twitter page, are based on old carvings and engravings that portrayed the two.

The artist said in his post: “I don’t claim to be a scientist. The historical portraits I make are based on artworks mostly made during the period of their subjects. With AI I filter out the sculpting styles of ancient portraiture and guide it to a credible outcome.”

Uterwijk is famous for using a GAN (generative adversarial network) to convert old paintings of public figures and famous people into photographs...

https://egyptindependent.com/dutch-photographer-uncovers-modern-image-of-egyptian-king-akhenaten-and-queen-nefertiti/

And, y'all, the comments are - Oh, so - predictable!!

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Offline Bison66

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OK, Y'ALL!!!!

Of ALL the information I have come across, THIS JOINT RIGHT HERE gives the best explanation I have ever seen thus far on

HOW the Kemetans...BUILT THE PYRAMIDS
Finally, the answer to how MASSIVE stones were moved...
They weren't! What??

I would TRULY like to hear YOUR take on this theory / description.



There may be one essential aspect missing from his description of the construction process, but I'll have to review it again to be sure.  I am eager to see if anyone else notices the same thing....
Did he or anyone duplicate the solar power?
Nonetheless, it is quite impressive.  And, he and his team give TOTAL credit to Africans!  That came as something of a surprise because I have noticed many Arabs (not to mention run-of-the-mill "not so much believers" in white so-called supremism) resist the obvious on that point.

OKAY, OKAY, I KNOW it's long.  :shrug: 
What can I say?
I viewed it over three days, and it was well worth the investment of my time.

I hope you will view AND take the time to give your reactions...


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Offline Bison66

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Upon review of the section involved, I will edit my previous statement...

There may be IS DEFINITELY one essential- ACTUALLY TWO - aspect missing from his description of the construction process, but I'll have to review it again to be sure.  I am eager to see if anyone else notices the same thing....

Anyone have any observations....?


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Offline Bison66

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THE PYRAMIDS - AS SEEN FROM THE SPACE STATION
DAMN, THEY ARE HUGE!



First, let us put the topic of HOW the pyramids were constructed into a broader context:
QUOTE
Despite the common teachings of the building of the pyramids at Giza, the feat of construction seems almost implausible. The Great Pyramid of Khufu was the tallest man made structure on earth for over 3,800 years - 16 times as long as our country has existed - until the construction of the Lincoln Cathedral in England. When built, the pyramid was 756 feet long on each side, 481 feet high, and composed of 2.3 million stones weighing on average nearly three tons each. Many of the joints between block are so accurate that a human hair cannot be passed between adjoining blocks.
[...]
Figuring out how the pyramids were built has interesting applications beyond Egyptology. Today’s building materials do not have an expected lifespan anywhere near 4,000 years. And many of our modern construction processes consume so much energy and emit so much CO2 that we’re quickly destroying the very world we’re working to build. The Egyptians seemed to know something we don’t about using locally-sourced materials to construct extraordinarily durable buildings without the huge environmental footprint so common today. Did the Egyptians use their minds as much as their muscle, and if so, what can we learn from them?
https://watershedmaterials.com/blog/2015/3/31/geopolymer-concrete-egyptian-pyramids-and-a-new-way-forward-for-sustainable-masonry

Here is the problem I find with the explanation in the video:

There are TWO essential "proofs" missing:

Who has reproduced the manufacture of solar lenses with ancient techniques?
--- This might possibly be answered by "mirrors" that could focus sunlight, but has anyone reproduced the melting of limestone or granite using them?

Has anyone replicated the melting of granite stone and creating concrete?


That is a huge leap without any evidence presented as proof of concept.

When I looked online for info on melting granite, what I found is that "melting" it with focused sunlight produces OBSIDIAN - NOT melted granite.
- - Has anyone else seen such?



The burden of proof is on the maker of the video and the promoter of the theory which was first advanced in the 1980s by Davidowits (but see below).

And,..there is also this..

The New York Times, December 1, 2006

The article contains the same information with an additional and very important one, namely the statement by Dr. Zahi Hawass, General Secretary of the Egyptian Antiquity Organisation. I quote :

Zahi Hawass, secretary-general of antiquities in Egypt and director of the Giza Pyramids excavations, said in an e-mail message, “The idea that concrete was used is unlikely and completely unproven.” Noting that the pyramids have been restored and reinforced many times with the extensive use of concrete, Dr. Hawass said, “I would ask Dr. Barsoum the question: where did he get the samples he is working with, and how can he show that the samples are not taken from areas that have been restored in modern times?”

https://www.davidovits.info/davidovits-pyramid-theory-worldwide/

But it appears that Davidowits has THE SCIENCE on his side.

Subsequent to Zawass' dismissive comments, a team of scientists issued their findings in a prestigious journal in 2011:

QUOTE
The abstract reads: “A comparison was made of the solid-state 29Si, 27Al and 43Ca MAS NMR spectra of the outer casing stone from Snefru’s Bent Pyramid in Dahshour, Egypt, with two quarry limestones from the area. The NMR results suggest that the casing stones consist of limestone grains from the Tura quarry, cemented with an amorphous calcium-silicate gel formed by human intervention, by the addition of extra silica, possibly diatomaceous earth, from the Fayium area.”
UNQUOTE
https://www.davidovits.info/english/archaeology/

IMPORTANT NOTES:
1) Davidowits' theory DOES NOT MENTION MELTING STONE.  He says that crushed stones were mixed with other materials to make what he coined as geopolymer.
2) The video left me with the impression that Davidowits' theory included "melting."  Unless I misunderstood, that is very misleading.
3) Contrary to claims in the video, Davidowits said that the huge blocks were BOTH: natural stone and man-made "concrete."


Let's revisit the significance and potential of geopolymers - IF ONLY someone could figure out how the Kemetens did it!!!

QUOTE
Always ahead of their time, the ancient Egyptian’s command of materials science may have allowed them to create man-made stone from little more than raw earth. While clear evidence exists of volcanic activity in Egypt’s long history, it’s unlikely that significant amounts of volcanic ash existed for the ancient Egyptians to build that quantity of stone. And the materials science research from Barsoum, Hobbs, and others doesn’t indicate ash as the source of the Egyptian’s alumina silicates, but rather locally sourced earth - Diatomaceous earth, kaolins, clays, and limestone - activated with an alkali material - natron salts and lime. This means that the Egyptians appear to have pioneered a geopolymer concrete that lasted throughout the history of modern humanity made from abundant common earthen materials found nearly everywhere on the planet. Compare that to the concrete we make that lasts half a century and comes with a disastrous carbon footprint.

Imagine how we could revolutionize today’s concrete masonry industry by re-discovering the Egyptian’s formula. Low cost, sustainable, resilient, and highly durable masonry could be produced nearly everywhere on the planet from materials sourced locally, all without ultra-high embodied energy binders like Portland cement.
https://watershedmaterials.com/blog/2015/3/31/geopolymer-concrete-egyptian-pyramids-and-a-new-way-forward-for-sustainable-masonry

This photo might be the most convincing evidence of the use of a mold... Notice the bottom and check out the caption.

A ground level block in front of the Great Pyramid of Khufu includes a irregular lip at the bottom that would have been very hard, and somewhat pointless, to carve. This lip indicates that the block was cast in place -  the material in the lip having slid out under the temporary wooden mold before hardening. Barsoum analyzed a piece of material from the bottom lip and says he did not find smoking gun evidence. “The only logical conclusion is that after 5000 years, the binding phase has basically been washed away. Solution? Get samples from the core of that block. Easier said than done.” Image © Michel Barsoum, used with permission.

What do y'all think?
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Offline Bison66

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When I shared elsewhere the same photos I shared here two weeks ago...

..one guy's ignorant response was "It would be cool if it was true."

I told him he's obviously read NOTHING about Kemet and that he probably got his "knowledge" of Kemet from the movies.

Then came to my inbox, this old TAKE DOWN of the 2014 film, Exodus: Gods and Kings.  So, of course, I shared this link below with him.  No reply.


Senusret of the 12th Dynasty

Of course, the director Ridley Scott made lame excuses about his casting decisions in an interview in Variety.  I'm betting he won't do that isht again....

Enjoy!!


http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Misc/Movie/Exodus_Gods_and_Kings.htm

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« Last Edit: April 02, 2021, 06:42:39 PM by Bison66 »

Offline Bison66

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Just 60 miles west of the Nile...

Y'all,
Eurocentrism is on ignorant display in this headline...


Nabta Playa: The World's First Astronomical Site Was Built In Africa And Is Older Than Stonehenge

C'mon, y'all!!!!!  There's a whole bunch of stuff older than Stonehenge..... as they get around to stating in the article!!!!!!



QUOTE
After seven years without being able to crack their mystery, Wendorf called in Malville, an expert on archaeoastronomy of the American Southwest.

Malville says he too was puzzled when he first looked at maps of the ancient site. He knew he had to travel there in person to get a sense of the place, as well as its creators and celestial significance.

They drove across the flat, sandy landscape until they reached a large sand dune beside a dry lake bed, where views stretched out to the horizon. There, they pitched their tents and set up camp. And while Malville sat in the sand beside the stones, he says he experienced “an epiphany.”

“I discovered that these stones were part of an alignment that radiated out from a major tumulus [burial mound],” he says. “A pile of these megaliths formed the covering of a tomb, and it turned out that every one of the megaliths that we found buried in sediment formed a line, like spokes in a wheel radiating out.”
https://www.discovermagazine.com/the-sciences/nabta-playa-the-worlds-first-astronomical-site-was-built-in-africa-and-is?fbclid=IwAR3R5nMx4opRAWwZpw31SGlPJV9p2ZCzU7YkqZR-tZKcPFVvkVcsQeY9JNE

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« Last Edit: May 06, 2021, 08:44:02 PM by Bison66 »

Offline Bison66

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QUOTE

The African Origins of Democracy

by Bernd Reiter
In this short essay I argue that democracy started in ancient Africa, not in ancient Greece.

Along the way, I demonstrate that world history’s hegemonic focus on civilization is mis-placed and misleading. Such a focus, after all, gears our collective attention toward empires,kingdoms, and dynasties and by doing so it obfuscates another history, more relevant fordemocracy: the history of self-rule, egalitarianism, resistance against state control, and truedemocracy. True democracy is defined here as self-rule by average people. It is not con-nected to voting and certainly disconnected from elections and from political representation.It started in Africa.
Counter-history
Most historiography recounts the history of human societies as one of civilization. Accordingto the Encyclopedia Britannica: “In general, civilization involves the rise of legal institutionsand the acquisition of a legal monopoly of force by a government. Those developments madepossible the cities and empires of classical times and the growth of dense populations.”There is, however, another history to be told, namely that of ordinary people and theirresistance against the kind of civilization characterized by rule, hierarchy, and exploitation.James Scott (2009) has provided us with such a counter-history when describing the struggleof such societies as the Gumlao, in the Zomia mountains of the Burmese highlands. Mur-

I am grateful for the comment I received from Victor Nweke, who pointed out that comparing Greece to thewhole continent of Africa is misleading. I understand his critique, but I am unable to pinpoint where exactlydemocracy emerged in Africa. My argument is that democracy, defined as self-rule by ordinary people, is anAfrican, not a European invention. I hope that further research can help us locate more precisely where exactly inAfrica institutionalized democratic rule was first practiced.
 Academia Letters, April 2021
Corresponding Author:
 Bernd Reiter, berndreiter@hotmail.com
Citation:
 Reiter, B. (2021). The African Origins of Democracy.
 Academia Letters
, Article 414.
https://doi.org/10.20935/AL414
.
1
©2021 by the author — Open Access — Distributed under CC BY 4.0

UNQUOTE

I believe you have to subscribe (FREE) to Academia.edu to see the entire article.

I found it VERY interesting - especially because it deconstructs the usual framework for "democracy."


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Offline Bison66

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So, Neymar....

Have you begun to check out YURUGU?

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It's sitting in my cart on amazon. I'll buy it next time I log in there. I planned to get it before I left the country but I forgot.

Cool!

Remember though that I posted a link to a free pdf version.

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Neymar,

I've lost track...

Did you order and read YURUGU?


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Offline Bison66

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