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Author Topic: "...a nation to which Europe owes everything, for Egypt is responsible for..."  (Read 87277 times)

Offline Bison66

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Pyramid-building began in the Sudan (modern borders) in what was then called Kush.  Check out how archaeologists have to dive into "groundwater" to inspect tombs of rulers.  Those tombs are richly decorated just like the ones in the larger (and later) pyramids in Kemet (Lower Egypt).

This makes it more difficult to explain for those who advocate a 'crossroads theory' for the origins and development of the amazing ancient civilization known today as Ancient Egypt.

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-40420910

Video of divers here:
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-48867830

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Offline Bison66

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This is another excellent example of the work done by the Brother at Home Team History.   :clap:   :clap:     :clap:     :clap:

This includes, but is NOT limited to, Kemet (Ancient Egypt).  Once again, he demolished the Eurocentric trick of "exceptionalizing" the genius of Kemet as non-representative of the Motherland as a whole.



ENJOY!!!

I am aware there is controversy surrounding the amazing astrological knowledge of the Dogon and am therefore intrigued by his reference to an artifact depicting Sirius as a 'twin star' system. 

If anyone has seen information or a photo of that artifact, please direct us to it and share a link.

Y'all STAY SAFE out here with COVID roaming the land!!!


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Offline Bison66

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This is part of a BBC series on the history of Africa based upon the United Nation's General History of Africa.

Surprisingly good.  The host is a broadcaster originally from Ethiopia (I think), Zeinab Badawi.



Sit back and enjoy.

My "favorite" part is watching Hawass (the now-former director antiquities in Egypt) try to explain why he wouldn't give permission for scientists to test the DNA of the mummies.  I am thinking that the editors cut him some slack by not including all of his stammering and stuttering.  But what they left in makes him look foolish.

Later in the video Hawass tries NOT to say that the civilization in Kemet (Ancient Egypt) was an African one, but concedes that Egypt is in Africa and the civilization was "connected" to Africa!!!  :lmao:   :lmao:  He should do stand up!!   :lmao:


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« Last Edit: April 30, 2020, 05:05:42 PM by Bison66 »

Offline iceman4221

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WOW, Iceman!!!!!

Coming from you, especially, I sincerely appreciate your kind words.

I must say, candidly, that I am sharing as I am learning for some of the info I have posted here.

It is crucial, as you clearly know, that we not allow the old lies and distortions to survive - at least not without strong and repeated challenge.  For the most part, it is thankless work. However, I am confident that a few minds will be changed, and osome people will be put on notice to quit spreading falsehoods.

(Cue music from Mission Impossible!  - smile -  Note to skeptics:  The M.I. Team ALWAYS accomplishes the mission!!!)


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It goes without saying, that you have been a GIANT when it comes to presenting Historical Facts & Truths versus His-Story (as re-written by the oppressor) here on Onnidan...

Quote
The "Mecca" has instilled in you a "sense of duty", commitment and dedication to the dissemination and "elevation of our people(s)", based upon factual truths that are easily found, cited or proven by respected anthropology, archaeology, scientific artifacts, monuments and the like - across the globe...


Quote
You are cherished and respected here, and your patience with the naive and/or "lost sheep" is to be commended - Unfortunately some can not see the light because blinders are covering their "mind's eye"...

Most of us here appreciate what you share here and the enlightenment gained from perusing the pages of "historical truth" that you share in this forum - So in many languages, I would like to Thank You Bison66.

asante - Swahili
zikomo - Nyanja
e dupe - Yoruba
ngiyabonga - Zulu 
Na Gode - Hausa
A jaaraama - Fulani
I ning bara - Mandinka
Tanumert - Tuareg
Djere dief - Wolof
Zarma - Fofo
ämäsäggənallähu - Amharic
shukran - Arabic       
toda - Hebrew
askwali - Hopi
naqurmiik - Inuktitut
dhanyavāda - Kannada
melesi - Lingala
webale - Luganda
misaotra - Malagasy
nandi - Malayalam
kia mihi - Maori
kom̧m̧ool - Ebon
ke a leboga - Northern Sotho
galatoomi - Oromo
tuhādā dhanavāda - Punjabi
fa’afetai - Samoan
ke a leboga - Sesotho
ndinotenda - Shona
mahadsanid - Somali
hatur nuhun - Sudanese
ngiyabonga - Swati
salamat po - Tagalog
nandri - Tamil
dhanyavaadaalu - Telugu
wado - Tsalagi
ndza khensa - Tsonga
ke a leboga - Tswana
enkosi - Xhosa
« Last Edit: April 15, 2020, 10:58:21 PM by iceman4221 »
Quote
NEVER Deliberate, Debate or Argue About what is Clearly Wrong and/or Unjust, and Try to Persuade Yourself or Others  that it's Not...

Offline Bison66

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Iceman, all I can say is...

asante - Swahili
zikomo - Nyanja
e dupe - Yoruba
ngiyabonga - Zulu
Na Gode - Hausa
A jaaraama - Fulani
I ning bara - Mandinka
Tanumert - Tuareg
Djere dief - Wolof
Zarma - Fofo
ämäsäggənallähu - Amharic


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Offline Bison66

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Another nail in the "crossroads" myth which tries to deny that the ancient civilization of Kemet was founded and developed by Africans.



You can support this Brother via Patreon.

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Offline Bison66

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At the bottom of this post is the OP of this thread quoting the book by Antenor Firmin.

Here is some more information about this brilliant Haiti-born scholar along with photos of him:


 


QUOTE

Joseph Auguste Anténor Firmin was born on October 18, 1850 in the city of Cap-Haitien. Not much is known about his early age. As an adult, he became a Journalist, a lawyer, author, a politician who served as Minister of Finance and Commerce and, Minister of Foreign Affairs under President Florvil Hyppolite; and last but definitely not least, a Scholar in Anthropology. Anténor Firmin is best known for the publication of his book in 1885, " l'Égalité des Races Humaines" (The Equality of the Human Races); a rebuttal  to the racist ideology of the French writer Arthur de Gobuineau's " Essai sur l'Inégalité des Races Humaines" (Essay  on the Inequality of Human Races) In his book, Arthur de Gobuineau affirmed that the Caucasian Race was superior to the Black Race and other people of color. But Antenor Firmin firmly believed that the equality of the races could be demonstrated through a positivist scientific approach. He became the first Anthropologist to question the concept of race and argue against evolutionism. He never categorize his opponents view as racism, he made fun of their thinking using instead the terms:<<Bizarre, comical, illogical>> Firmin elegantly and confidently challenged the racist writings; the dominant view of the time, by going to the very philosophical roots of anthropology.
UNQUOTE
http://hougansydney.com/antenor-firmin.php

At that link, you can see another photo of this CLASSY Brother and read an excerpt from him where he seems to predict the election of Barack Obama a century-plus later.

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.... the original intellectual and moral achievements which constitute the foundations of modern civilization."

I offer this in this forum because of the repeated inferences by one poster that African/Black people are inferior (not to mention his avowed "not so much" belief in white so-called supremacy).

Quote
"If we could prove, on the basis of recent advances in our knowledge of history, that the Egyptian people were not a White race, as so many have constantly maintained through rigid adherence to systems of thought and retrospective pride ever since Egyptology [determined]the overwhelming importance of this ancient nation, what further argument could be mustered to salvage the doctrine of the inequality of the races? The answer is, none.

"The anthropologists and scientists who support such a theory realize its inanity to such an extent that they have resorted to all sorts of conceptual subtleties, construed all kinds of specious arguments into convincing reasons, accepted all types of scholarly ravings as serious probabilities, all in order to make people believe that the ancient Egyptians were White.
 
"Caucasian presumption could not suffer the idea that, in the first flowering of progress, a race Europeans consider radically inferior could produce a nation to which Europe owes everything, for Egypt is responsible for the original intellectual and moral achievements which constitute the foundations of modern civilization. Fortunately, light is being shed today on all the basic issues, particularly in the field of Egyptology. Scientists from all the great nations have conducted research in the field with enthusiasm and with a sense of emulation even rivalry, to the greater glory of science. It is becoming impossible, then, to resist the evidence of facts and to remain captive of obsolete theories."-- Antenor Firmin, The Equality of the Human Races, p. 227-228 (2002)

From a review of the book by the Haitian scholar:
Quote
As Fluehr-Lobban points out in her introduction, Firmin’s work was ahead of its time not only in its assertion of racial equality, but also in terms of the ways in which it engaged with art, literature and indeed, “popular culture.” Several of Firmin’s chapters anticipate later theoretical movements of the twentieth century. His discussion of Egypt as the source of European civilization echoes Martin Bernal’s controversial arguments in Black Athena (1987). In a move that presages later postcolonial critiques, he analyses the role played by theological doctrines in “popularizing the theory of race inequality” (Firmin 405), and also explores the repeated casting of Blacks as the Devil in paintings (Ary Scheffer’s The Temptation of Christ, 1856)  and in literature (Victor Hugo’s La Légende des siécles). At several points as I was reading Firmin’s work I had to remind myself that it was written in 1885. Overall I found it a relevant, provocative and fascinating read.
http://classes.yale.edu/03-04/anth500b/projects/project_sites/04_Chattaraj/Introduction.html

This book was first published in 1885 in French.
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Offline Bison66

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Another link to great info from the 1885 book by Brother Fermin:

QUOTE

n 1885, Anténor FIRMIN, born and educated in Haiti, school inspector in Cap-Haitien, writes a scathing refutation against these pseudo-scientists who supported the thesis of the inequality of human "races". His work entitled "The equality of human races" is the antithesis of the rantings of a certain Gobineau, French compiler writer. This Afro-Caribbean researcher (1850-1911), ahead of his time, reassessed the essential role of African cultures in the history of civilization, from the ancient Egyptians to the first black republic of Haiti. Anténor FIRMIN is a worthy precursor of the African Scientist Cheikh Anta Diop (1923-1986). We offer extracts from his work.

What is particularly remarkable about these extracts is that they were written by a man who lived in the 19th century! They concern Egypt and Civilization. We recall that Jean-François Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphs barely 28 years before the birth of Anténor Firmin. And the year of the publication of the book of the great Firmin is 1885, that is to say the year of the "famous" conference in Berlin, when Europe is going to share Africa. At the time, Firmin was 35 years old but he had already reached the summit of knowledge of all the men of his time. He is Afro-Caribbean, brilliant and proud to be a Negro descendant of our mother "AFRICA"!
[...]

This tribute must be paid to the genius of Champollion. Not only did he have the immortal glory of having revealed ancient Egypt to the European world, discovering the hidden meaning of hieroglyphics, but he also declared, at the first glance, with that profound meaning of which he was gifted, that the Egyptian and Ethiopian peoples formed one and the same race, having the community of language as that of color and physiognomy. "The ancient Egyptians," he says, "belong to a race of men quite like the Kennous or Barabras, present-day inhabitants of Nubia. The Copts of Egypt do not have any characteristic features of the ancient Egyptian population. The Copts are the result of the confused mixture of all the nations that successively dominated Egypt (NB, that is, Blacks: Egyptian and Sudanese, then towards the end of the History of Kemet, White: Greek and Roman). It is wrong to want to find in them the features of the old race. This passage, which comes from the introduction of Champollion's Egyptian Grammar, no longer appears on the latest publications!) The terms can not be more precise. Long before him, moreover, one of the greatest names in French erudition, had written in favor of this same opinion. Volney, in his Voyage to Egypt and Syria, published in the year 1787, expresses himself in the following terms when speaking of a famous sphinx. "When I saw this head, negro in all its features, I remembered this remarkable passage of Herodotus, where he says: "For me, I think that the Colachs are a colony of the Egyptians, because, like them, they have the black skin and frizzy hair "(NB This is Herodotus' Book II, paragraph 104, the Greek Herodotus is considered by the Europeans as" the father of history. "He has traveled all over Egypt and of course was an eyewitness to the ancient Egyptians, here the mystification consisted in replacing in the French translation "black skin" with "brown skin"; that is to say, the ancient Egyptians were true negroes of the species of all the naturals of Africa; and from that time it is explained how their blood, allied for centuries with that of the Romans and Greeks, must have lost the intensity of its color, while preserving the imprint of its original mold. "
UNQUOTE
https://afrikhepri.org/de-legalite-des-races-humaines-antenor-firmin/

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« Last Edit: April 30, 2020, 05:02:02 PM by Bison66 »

Offline Bison66

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Brother Anu is ALWAYS at 100%!!!

I have shared his videos from his Home Team History YouTube channel.

This is from one of his websites.

ENJOY!!


QUOTE

Africa’s Most Powerful Military

When people think about African military history they usually think about Shaka and the Zulu and how great they were. More advanced students of history may think of the Almoravid Empire and the Moors under their leader Abu Bakr who took parts of southern Spain. Let’s be honest, most people regard the Zulu as being Africa’s most powerful military because the British told us all to believe that. The truth is, there’s another more ancient African nation that has a far better track record than the Zulu and even the Moors of North Africa.....
UNQUOTE

KUSH!!!!



http://afrographics.com/africas-most-powerful-military/

[If you haven't seen it, please view my post in General Forum today.  YOU are invited for this evening!!]

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Offline Bison66

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Enjoy some great illustrations and paintings, mostly from the Moorish period in Andulasia, which later became Spain and Portugal.

As you will reminder, the Blackamoors ruled the Iberian Peninsula for nearly 700 years and brought many civilizing advances.

https://historum.com/threads/the-moors-who-ruled-of-europe.66265/

ENJOY!!!


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Offline Bison66

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10 Pieces of Evidence That Prove Black People Sailed to the Americas Long Before Columbus



We have covered most of this ground before, but it's worth revisiting.  And, there's some info here useful for the fresh conversation about honoring Chrissy Columbus.

One poster still has not come out of hiding since his ridiculous and white so-called supremacist claim that West Africans did not have "the stuff" to cross the African Ocean (the Atlantic).

I guess the evidence was just too much and the cognitive dissonance overwhelmed him.  ANYWAY,...........

One reservation I have.  The photo accompanying the page on African skeletons APPEARS TO ME to be of a Kemetan in a sarcophagus.

https://atlantablackstar.com/2015/01/23/10-pieces-of-evidence-that-prove-black-people-sailed-to-the-americas-long-before-columbus/

Good info!!!

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« Last Edit: July 03, 2020, 10:08:45 PM by Bison66 »

Offline Bison66

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The same poster I mentioned above NEVER EVER EVER responded to my question to him IF he would accept scientific evidence about the mummies of Kemet (Ancient Egypt).  He said it was not nice (or words to that effect - maybe he said "not a good look') for me to hold him accountable by calling his name. So I won't, but it starts with an 'N.'

He claimed that Kemet was NOT an African civilization because it was in a crossroads.  He then proceeded  :lmao:    :lmao:   :lmao: to post photos of CURRENT DAY "Egyptians" to prove his point about the people who lived there SIX THOUSAND YEARS AGO!!!

That's right up there with the stupidest posts (excluding, but competing with Olds..t's) ever made on this site!!!

I have waited almost two years (I haven't looked it up) for 'N' to respond to my question - and have even followed up more than a couple times, and I think I may have sent him a PM.  In any case, I haven't heard from him.

For everyone else and incidentally him, I am pleased to provide what IMO is clear-cut and incontrovertible evidence of the Africanity of the rulers of Kemet.

It started on FB with this...

D'Nile is not ONLY a river in Africa (not in the mythical Middle-East).



One of N's British countrymen commented:
Nathan Fish:
 Anyone got a report/study for this
I want to believe it but we all need proof


And I responded:
Now, THAT's what I am talking about!!! Evidence!!! Bro, as you said, wanting to believe is not enough. It's called "confirmation bias" when people think, "I like that. Sounds good, so it must be true." Give me a few...

Then I shared these posts..

First, let us set the stage before answering Nathan Fish's inquiry.
QUOTE Proving the European ancestry of ancient Egyptians — particularly of Egyptian royalty — has been a running goal of research on mummies for some 200 years. A century or two ago it was determined by measuring skulls and comparing physical features; now it is done through ancient DNA (aDNA). Throughout all of this, the methods have been scientifically questionable. Problems with aDNA studies are legion: small sample sizes, broad claims made from individual data points, and (not surprisingly) contradictory results. The failures of past race science should give researchers pause in the present, to consider that our current assumptions might also be flawed and troubled. And researchers should stop and ask why this question of (why) European ancestry continues to be such a focus of primarily European research on mummies. After 200 years, the public would be forgiven for thinking that researchers really want ancient Egyptians to have been European, or even that researchers think Africans would not have been capable of producing the great monuments of the Egyptian past. UNQUOTE
[EMPHASIS ADDED IN ALL CITATIONS]
https://hyperallergic.com/544992/mummies/?fbclid=IwAR3ZXrplEKvE4C1MvGrYX12lG1hGF9o9SeNP8g6B4tdpNnYKZ8aBZUl9oxU

Next post:

Secondly, folks with an agenda in support of Eurocentrism or an Arab-origin of Kemet (Ancient Egypt) do research on mummies from LONG AFTER Kemet was past its glorious prime. Like this one:
QUOTE The samples recovered from Middle Egypt span around 1,300 years of ancient Egyptian history from the New Kingdom to the Roman Period. Our analyses reveal that ancient Egyptians shared more ancestry with Near Easterners than present-day Egyptians, who received additional sub-Saharan admixture in more recent times. UNQUOTE
https://www.cemml.colostate.edu/cultural/09476/egypt02-01enl.html?fbclid=IwAR34WjkkymOgJnbK4aVbT34bkddQC6iNSDqJlLnofpcuRdJOKAogsv21NTU

PLEASE NOTE: Kemet was already TWO THOUSAND YEARS IN THE MAKING BEFORE the Middle Kingdom

But, at least the authors told you - upfront, if you were paying attention - that they were getting ready to MISLEAD you!!
https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms15694?fbclid=IwAR3Dk9fcfPShqpX8HovOpNJoP4YBhnx4Lyx1-JnftFe0SQcpIMGSpSYHb6A

Next post - the coup de grace:

So, BINGO!!! Despite (now former) Director of Antiquities Hawass' RACIST refusals to allow independent African scholars to test the DNA for themselves, the TRUTH came out anyway. Experts took the DNA released by Hawass on much older mummies and ran it through an analysis to see WHO it matched with. Here is a chart showing their results.
https://www.quora.com/Are-the-DNA-results-of-ancient-Egyptian-royal-mummies-from-DNA-Tribes-and-DNA-Consultants-credible?fbclid=IwAR3JiFGnFjMMmMLFfciMtkhqXSrPM7ISSKupeaUD4TUm5WEBX9IYEZuy9sA


As is obvious from the chart, the mummies shared more DNA characteristics BY FAR with the current populations in three regions of AFRICA than anywhere else. BY FAR!!

Given that result, how do YOU imagine they looked?

Certainly, not like 'N'!!!!  Or, me!!!  They would have been rich in melanin and display a beautiful, deep and luxurious dark brown skin tone.


Next post:

QUOTE from the site above.....
So the peer review of Hawass’ data matches what DNA Tribes and DNA Consultants got when they used Hawass' genetic data. If you can’t enlarge this chart it is at this link under Fig 1:https://osf.io/ecwf3/

Additionally, here is a peer review of the Hawass paper by The American Journal of Physical Anthropology.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ajpa.22909
They found that all of the data, including the molecular genetics, to be accurate: Identifications of ancient Egyptian royal mummies from the 18th Dynasty reconsidered
So. Either the data is accurate and the Amarna mummies were ancestral to sub-Saharan Africa, or Zahi Hawass (the former head of Egyptian antiquities), and 5 expert molecular geneticists, don’t know what they are doing. For the record, Zahi Hawass is the last person on Earth who wants to see a black, sub-Saharan origin to ancient Egypt.
Additionally, if DNATribes or DNA Consultants is wrong, the testing methodology used by The FBI, academia and commercial labs for over 20 years is flawed. That means innocent people in jail, wrongly identified bodies and faulty ancestry tests.
UNQUOTE

Next post:

Here's the chart from the other peer reviewed article examining what Hawass team found but REFUSED TO ACKNOWLEDGE or even LOOK FOR.. Notice how overwhelming is the match is between the DNA of the RULERS of Kemet to Sub-Saharan Africans as compared with Europeans. Judge for yourself.



So now,...
Brothers and Sisters, you will see several comments reflecting the "legacy of disbelief" that often stands in the way of acknowledging African/Black accomplishment.  They try to muddy the water and raise all kinds of issues to cast doubt on the credibility of - not one, not two, but - all three of the companies who did the analysis of the data.

Please note, however, that NONE of the comments I read ACTUALLY DISPUTE the findings. 

And at least two of the analyses were peer-reviewed.

"White Fragility" is a REAL thing and I would refer you to the quote by Brother Fermin in the OP of this thread (some years ago) to remind us all of what is ACTUALLY AT STAKE here: the foundation of white so-called supremism.

Finally, I would simply add, "None are so blind as those who will not see."


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« Last Edit: July 18, 2020, 09:50:15 AM by Bison66 »

Offline Bison66

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THIS IS SUCH A SHAME!!!

One can only hope the vandals/looters found ZERO gold!

And that they will be RECAPTURED and serve time.
What the Sam Hell were the police thinking?  Or,... were they counting....$$?

 :vomit:

Gold-hunting diggers destroy Sudan's priceless past



QUOTE
When a team of archaeologists deep in the deserts of Sudan arrived at the ancient site of Jabal Maragha last month, they thought they were lost. The site had vanished.

But they hadn't made a mistake. In fact, gold-hunters with giant diggers had destroyed almost all sign of the two millenia-old site.

"They had only one goal in digging here -- to find gold," said shocked archaeologist Habab Idriss Ahmed, who had painstakingly excavated the historic location in 1999.

"They did something crazy; to save time, they used heavy machinery."

In the baking-hot desert of Bayouda, some 270 kilometres (170 miles) north of the capital Khartoum, the team discovered two mechanical diggers and five men at work.

They had dug a vast trench 17 metres (55 feet) deep, and 20 meters long.

The rust-coloured sand was scarred with tyre tracks, some cut deep into the ground, from the trucks that transported the equipment.

The site, dating from the Meroitic period between 350 BC and 350 AD, was either a small settlement or a checkpoint. Since the diggers came, hardly anything remains.

"They had completely excavated it, because the ground is composed of layers of sandstone and pyrite," said Hatem al-Nour, Sudan's director of antiquities and museums.

"And as this rock is metallic their detector would start ringing. So they thought there was gold."

https://news.yahoo.com/gold-hunting-diggers-destroy-sudans-030353539.html

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« Last Edit: August 25, 2020, 02:37:30 PM by Bison66 »

Offline Bison66

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Re: "...a nation to which Europe owes everything, for Egypt is responsible for..."
« Reply #598 on: September 19, 2020, 11:56:01 PM »
EXCELLENT LECTURE - ILLUSTRATED - ON ANCIENT KUSH!

Professor Ampim does extensive field research - not just reading the work of other scholars and he shares with passion.

STRIPPING AWAY THE LIES!!!



This is PART ONE. 

I invite those tempted to succumb to the anti-African "crossroads" theory to look at the first map Prof. Ampim shows, and try to explain Kush (the grandparent of Kemet/Ancient Egypt) as the result of some uncertain mixture of peoples - not as an African civilization.

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« Last Edit: September 20, 2020, 12:00:18 AM by Bison66 »

Offline Bison66

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Re: "...a nation to which Europe owes everything, for Egypt is responsible for..."
« Reply #599 on: September 22, 2020, 07:16:18 AM »
Egypt discovers 14 ancient sarcophagi at Saqqara



QUOTE
Egypt's antiquities ministry announced Sunday the discovery of 14 sarcophagi in the Saqqara necropolis south of Cairo that had lain buried for 2,500 years.

The coffins were found two days ago during an archaeological dig at the burial spot where another 13 wooden sarcophagi had been discovered last week, the ministry said in a statement.

The vast Saqqara necropolis is located around 16 kilometres (10 miles) south of the famed Giza pyramids. It is part of the ancient city of Memphis, a UNESCO World Heritage site, and hosts the colossal step Pyramid of Djoser.
UNQUOTE
https://news.yahoo.com/egypt-discovers-14-ancient-sarcophagi-002513411.html

Given the northern location (Lower Nile), I asked an expert, Dr. Runoko Rashidi, about the period in the glorious history of Kemet from which these sarcophagi would likely originate.  Here is his response:

QUOTE

This is from what is called the Late Period. This would be around dynasties 27-29. A period of Persian domination. So it is a kind of down time for Kmt.
UNQUOTE
NOTE:  As I understand it, the ancient tradition is that vowels were to be used only by the "priestly class."...ergo, Kmt for Kemet.

To supplement what Dr. Runoko Rashidi said above re: a period of decline, note the "Late Period" on this timeline chart:.



For perspective consider that the Late Period begins TWO THOUSAND THREE HUNDRED YEARS after the beginning of the chart. That is more than TEN TIMES the existence of the USA!


O0




 

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